ANNAPOLIS VALLEY REGIONAL SCHOOL BOARD

SCIENCE SAFETY MANUAL

FOR

SCIENCE TEACHERS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Annapolis Valley Regional School Board wishes to thank the Halifax Regional School Board and to acknowledge the contributions of the staff of their science departments to the development of materials for our Safety Manual. Their enthusiasm and expertise is appreciated.

The Board also wishes to thank those organizations who supplied them with information that assisted them in the development of this manual.

_ Halifax Regional School Board Science Safety Manual

_ Insights Visual Production California - "Science Safety"

_ Park View Education Centre " Science Laboratory Safety Audit"

_ Anappolis Valley Regional School's Science Departments for their expertise and cooperation in maintaining safety in their classrooms

They are all acknowledged for their contributions to the volume of information pertaining to safety for staff and students in our schools.

All or any part of this manual may be duplicated.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

Page

1. Introduction

2. Responsibilities: a. School Board and Superintendent 1

b. School Administration

c. Science Teacher

d. Science Student

3. Some Legal Aspects of Science Safety 4

4. WHMIS 5

5. Hazardous Materials: Explosives 6

Highly Toxic Materials

Carcinogens

Mutagens

Teratogens

6. Prohibited Chemicals 11

7. Restricted Chemicals 12

8. Chemical Storage 13

9. Disposal 15

10. Spills 16

11. Biohazardous Materials 17

12. Mechanical and Electrical Hazard 19

13. Fire Safety in the Laboratory 21

14. First Aid Kits 23

15. Field Trips 24

16. Personal Protective Equipment for Students 26

17. Safety Equipment 27

18. Fume Hoods 28

19. Eye Hazards 29

20. Appendices 30

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

The intent of this manual is to aid teachers in development a complete science safety program that, while supporting an exciting and meaningful science curriculum, reduces the risk of injury for staff and students.

Some risk is inherent in almost all science activities and to minimize these risks these factors have to be considered:

Ability of teaching personnel to ensure a safe program

Support from superiors in promoting safety

Knowledge of subject matter and of chemicals and equipment used

Assurance of cooperation from students who have been taught their responsibilities in the labs.

Not all hazardous materials can be eliminated from the program - nor would we want them eliminated if we are to provide a meaningful science curriculum. Yet some of our schools are unable to provide the conditions necessary for the safe use of all chemicals in their laboratories. Some chemicals are known or suspected carcinogens, mutagens, explosive or highly toxic and must be excluded from use by students and staff. Others are restricted or prohibited by the Nova Scotia Department of Education.

The decision to use certain substances in the school laboratory should be based on the best available knowledge of each chemical's particular hazard and the availability of proper handling facilities. When the risk outweighs the benefit and no substitute is available, then the experiment should be eliminated from the program.

Accidents do not just happen - they are caused. If the potential cause can be detected and eliminated, fewer accidents should happen. Accidents can be prevented by:

An educational safety program

Proper supervision of students

Appropriate laboratory techniques

Good laboratory housekeeping

Science instructors who have been alerted to the hazards in the labs, who have provided a student educational safety program and who promote sound laboratory techniques are in a better position

to ensure a safe, successful science program.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Responsibilities

Responsibility for ensuring a safe environment in the science classroom is shared by four main groups:

School Board and Superintendent

School Administration

Science Teacher

Science Student

School Board and Superintendent

The School Board and Superintendent should:

Initiate planning for the necessary improvements and procedures to ensure science safety;

Ensure that school administrators carry out safety responsibilities;

Provide in-service training and encouragement to ensure that the professional staff have the necessary expertise to develop and maintain a safe working/learning environment.

School Administration

The school administration should:

Ensure all staff who are teaching science have a copy of the "Safety Manual for Science Teachers";

Assure support for science staff who are attempting to develop and maintain a safe working/learning environment in the school;

Ensure all safety concerns that can be dealt with at the school level are promptly corrected;

Direct any safety concerns that cannot be corrected at the school level to the appropriate district personnel;

Ensure safety inspection of science facilities and equipment at least three times a year.

Ensure that the school has effective policies and procedures to follow in case of accidents and emergencies;

Ensure that all teachers and substitutes have the expertise to teach the science assigned to them, in a safe and effective manner;

Ensure that the size of the science classes allows for a safe learning environment which can be readily supervised;

Support teachers in providing a safe working environment through:

- supporting science laboratory safety equipment needs;

- enabling teachers to obtain in-service training in science safety;

- supporting and providing disciplinary measures to ensure safety in science classes;

- ensuring safety procedures identified in this manual are effectively carried out;

- making provisions for the safety of students with handicaps, cultural or language

difficulties;

- ensuring teachers have the necessary resources to carry out their safety responsibilities.

Cooperate with outside agencies in encouraging science safety, e.g. Fire Departments, Department of Environment, etc.;

Ensure all experiments involving a possible eye injury are carried out in a room equipped with a continuous flow eye wash;

Ensure all master shut-offs for gas, oil, water and electricity are clearly marked;

Ensure that a telephone is easily accessible from each laboratory;

Ensure that the intent and the details of the Science Safety Manual are followed;

Establish a safety awareness program in the science department.

Science Teacher

The science teacher should:

Instruct the students of their responsibilities (as outlined in this manual and in the Safety for Science Students pamphlet) at the beginning of each course, and obtain written confirmation from the students that these responsibilities are understood and accepted (see contract on pamphlet and form in this manual);

Instruct students in safety procedures appropriate to current learning activities and enforce those procedures;

Enforce rules which will result in reasonable and sensible behaviour;

Never leave students unsupervised in the laboratory or in storage areas;

Report any accident or injury to staff or students to the principal immediately; and complete a Nova Scotia School Boards Association School Incident Report Form;

Report to the principal any safety defects in science equipment or practices;

Ensure a well-stocked First Aid Kit is immediately accessible;

Provide a separate container for broken glass;

Know the proper use of fire extinguishers and fire blankets;

Where possible, maintain a list of students with special needs (e.g. hearing deficiency), allergies, contact lenses and other corrective devices. Also periodically record any " special" medication used.

Maintain general security in the science department;

Ensure that science equipment and facilities conform to standards;

Ensure all reagent bottles are prominently and accurately labelled;

Follow the safety procedures in this manual;

Implement and maintain safe storage and waste disposal for potentially dangerous substances used or produced in the course of laboratory work;

Know the location of, and how to shut off, utilities; e.g. gas, water, electricity; label and/or colour code all master shut-offs clearly;

Take responsibility for the design of all experiments to ensure they have minimal safety hazards;

Maintain an Emergency St. John Ambulance First Aid Certificate.

 

 

 

 

 

Science Student

The science student should:

Give undivided attention in the laboratory and behave in a safe and careful manner;

Follow all safety procedures and instructions laid out in the "Safety for Science Students" pamphlet; and acknowledge responsibility by signing the contract on the back of the pamphlet;

Not carry out any science activity without the teacher's permission.

Report any unsafe situations or accidents to the teacher immediately.

 

 

 

Some Legal Aspects of Science Safety

The following points are not intended to provide comprehensive coverage of the law governing science safety. They are included in order to increase teacher awareness of some of the inherent risks in many activities, and to promote a questioning and cautious attitude.

Negligence: May be defined as conduct that falls below a standard of care established by law to protect others against an unreasonable risk of harm. There are at least three major types of negligence:

1. Malfeasance: doing that which should not have been done;

2. Misfeasance: improper performance of a lawful act;

3. Non-feasance: failure to do what should be done.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guidelines to Safer Practices

1. Teachers are expected to protect the health, welfare and safety of their students.

2. Teachers are expected to be able to foresee the reasonable consequences of their actions and inactions. A reasonable person (teacher or administrator) is expected to be aware of the foibles of human nature (students) and be able to anticipate what difficulties might arise in terms of safety problems, typical, or atypical student behaviour. Ignorance is not an excuse in the eyes of justice. Teachers are assumed to be professionals who remain current in their knowledge by participating in professional development, joining professional organizations, and reading professional journals.

3. Careful planning is expected for all activities. The following questions can be used to guide planning for a particular unit or activity.

What are the hazards?

What are the "worst case" scenarios?

How can I prepare for the "worst case" scenarios?

What practices, safety equipment, and protective facilities are prudent and appropriate?

4. Teachers must carefully instruct their classes and must give careful directions before allowing students to attempt individual projects. Particular emphasis should be placed on relating any risks inherent in a particular laboratory experiment or activity prior to the students' participation.

5. Teachers should create an environment in which appropriate laboratory behaviour is maintained.

6. Teachers should report any hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions to supervisory personnel immediately. Reports should be written and the teacher should retain a personal copy.

7. Adequate records of all aspects of laboratory operations should be maintained.

8. The teacher's presence is necessary to ensure adequate safety supervision.

9. Teachers should be aware of district board and provincial policies related to laboratory activities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WHMIS

Perhaps the best source of information available on the chemicals used in our programs are the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) that are part of the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) that has evolved as a result of requirements under the Occupational Health and Safety Act.

MSDS

These MSDS have been supplied to Junior and Senior High Schools for all chemicals they have in stock. The MSDS provide a tremendous amount of information and all teachers should be aware of the format and where to find the information they need quickly. The nine categories of information required on MSDS are:

1. Product Information

2. Hazardous Ingredients

3. Physical Data

4. Fire and Explosion Hazard

5. Reactivity Data

6. Toxicological Properties

7. Preventive Measures

8. First Aid Measures

9. Preparation Information

Labels

The labels on chemicals from Laboratory Supply Houses, which are packages in quantities less than 10 kg are intended for use in your laboratory must disclose the following:

1. The product name

2. Where a MSDS is available, a statement to that effect (if a data sheet is not available, the label must disclose the information required on the data sheet)

3. Risk phrases appropriate to the chemical

4. Precautionary measures to be followed

5. Where appropriate, first aid measures in case of exposure

In the laboratory, samples less than 100 mL in volume that are used-in-house only, require a product identifier only.

All chemical containers, not only the original container, must be labeled in such a way as to clearly identify the contents.

Education and Training

The third requirement under the WHMIS legislation is education and training.

WHMIS is, at heart, a system of information delivery to workers. Education of workers includes all those activities which provide knowledge and skills to workers so that they may work safely with, or near to, hazardous materials. Your employer is responsible to provide this education.

It is expected that employees will be trained sufficiently to use the information and training to protect not only themselves but their fellow employees as well.

 

Chemical Safety

All chemicals are hazardous, and accidents involving them are preceded by one or more close calls. Therefore, by determining and then eliminating the causes of these close calls, future accidents can be avoided. It is also important that teachers, especially those that are new to laboratory instruction, consider the hazards, precautions and emergency procedures pertinent to the safe handling of chemicals before introducing students to the laboratory.

One precautionary measure is all important. Whenever chemicals are handled, glassware used or flames are involved, all persons present must wear eye protection whether or not they are actively involved in the exercise or demonstration. The two suitable types of safety goggles are type G (without ventilation) and type H (with indirect ventilation). Both types are equipped with flexible edging so that they fit against the skin and thus protect from flying fragments as well as splashes of liquid from all directions.

` One type of eye wear that is often and incorrectly worn as protection in an environment where chemicals are handled is known as "safety Glasses". These are similar in appearance to spectacles and may or may not be equipped with side shields. Even with side shields, they do not protect against chemical splashes.

Hazardous Materials

The list of potentially hazardous materials identified in this manual is not all-inclusive, nor does it address all the hazards that can be encountered when handling chemicals. The Material Safety Data Sheets are a more complete reference on each specific chemical. What we seek to emphasize are those Chemicals that have been listed by the Department of Education as restricted or prohibited, or have been identified by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as hazards.

Included in this manual are definitions and examples of explosives, highly toxic materials, carcinogens, matagens, and teratogens.

NOTE?? (flammability, corrosives, toxicity, and reactivity???)

Explosives

Explosives: An unstable substance capable of rapid and violent energy release.

The following substances are prohibited for use in schools. They should be removed only by persons trained in handling explosive materials.

Benzoyl Peroxide CH2CHCN

Carbon Disulfide CS2

Diisopropyl Ether ((CH3)2CH)2O

Ethyl Ether C4H10O

Picric Acid 2,4,6-(NO2)3C6H2OH

Perchloric Acid HCIO4

Potassium Metal K

 

 

 

 

Highly Toxic Materials

Highly Toxic - Agents or substances that when inhaled, absorbed or ingested in small amounts can cause death, disablement or severe illness.

Adrenaline

Barium Hydroxide

Chlorine

Colchicine

Mercury

Mercuric Chloride

Mercuric Iodide

Mercuric Nitrate

Mercuric Oxide

Mercuric Sulfate

Nicotine

Osmium Tetroxide

Phosphorous (White)

Phosphorous Pentoxide

Potassium Cyanide

Potassium Periodate

Silver Cyanide

Sodium Cyanide

 

 

 

Carcinogens

Carcinogen: - A substance capable of causing cancer or cancerous growths in mammals.

- "Known" labels indicate that enough information exists which shows a definite

relationship between exposure to a substance and cancer in humans.

- "Probable" labels indicate there is limited evidence in humans and/or sufficient

evidence in experimental animals.

- Remember - Some carcinogens are more potent than others and risk increases

with level and duration of exposure.

Known Carcinogens

Arsenic Power

Arsenic Pentoxide

Arsenic Trichloride

Arsenic Trioxide

Asbestos

Benzene

Benzidene

Chromium Powder

Chromium (VI) Oxide

Lead Arsenate

Sodium Arsenate

Sodium Arsenite

Probable Carcinogens:

Acrilonitrile

Cadmium Powder

Cadmium Chloride

Cadmium Sulfate

Carbon Tetrachloride

Chloroform

Ethylene Oxide

Nichel Powder

o-Toluidine

Known Animal Carcinogens:

Acetamide

Aniline (or any of its salts)

Beryllium Carbonate

1,2-Dichloroethane (Ethylene Dichloride)

1,4-Dioxane (o-Dioxane)

Formaldehyde

Lead (II) Acetate

Nichel (II) Acetate

 

 

 

 

 

Mutagens

Mutagens: - Substances capable of causing changes in the genetic material of a cell, which can be transmitted during cell division.

The extent of the hazard to humans associated with exposure to mutagens is less clear than it is with carcinogens. However, it is recommended that similar (to that exercised in handling carcinogens) caution should be exercised in handling substances which are mutagenic.

Mutagens:

Acetamide Lead (II) Acetate

Acridine Orange Osmium Tetraoxide

Ammonium Chromate Potassium Chromate

Ammonium Dichromate Potassium Permanganate

Ammonium Bichromate Pyrogallic Acid

Anthracene Silver Nitrate

Antimony Oxide Sodium Azide

Beryllium Carbonate Sodium Dichromate Dihydrate

Cobalt Powder Sodium Nitrate

Colchicine Sodium Nitrite

1,2-Dichloroethane Toluene

Formaldehyde Urethane (Ethyl Carbamate)

Hydroquinone *Ultraviolet Radiation

Indigo Carmine

Teratogens

Teratogens: - Substances which are capable of producing abnormalities in offspring resulting from exposure of the pregnant woman to the substance at a concentration that would be unlikely to have an effect on the woman. The human fetus is particularly at risk during the embryonic stage of development, which is between two and eight weeks.

Known or Suspected Teratogens:

Ethyl Alcohol

Iodide Compounds

Lead

Methyl Mercury

Polychlorinated Biphenyls

Radioiodine

A number of drugs are also included in this list, i.e.: - Heroin, Cocaine, Methadone, Tetracycline, Thalidomide. Ultraviolet Radiation and diseases such as Rubella and Syphilis have been associated with congenital malformation.

 

 

 

 

 

Prohibited Chemicals

Department of Education, 1984

The following chemicals should not be used in any school; if they are found to be present, they should be disposed of immediately.

Acrylonitrile

Asbestos (powdered)

Benzotrifluoride (Trifluorotoluene)

Benzoyl Peroxide

Beryllium

Beryllium Chloride

Carbon Disulfide

Carbon Monoxide

Chromic Acid

Chromium Trioxide

Cyanogen (Oxalic Acid Dinitrile)

Dimethyl Ether

Dimethyl Sulfate

Dimethyl Sulfide

Dinitrobenzene

Ethylamine

Ethylene Oxide

Fluorine (Liquid)

Formaldehyde (Added 1991)

Fuming Acids (i.e. Nitric, Sulfuric)

Gasoline

Hydrocyanic Acid

Hydrofluoric Acid

Metallic Peroxides of Barium and Calcium

Nicotine

Perchloric Acid

Phenol

Picric Acid

Polychlorinated Biphenyl (Microscope Immersion Fluid) PCB's

Potassium

Potassium Cyanide

Powdered Metals (i.e. Mg, Al)

Sodium Cyanide

Vinyl Chloride

White Phosphorous

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Restricted Chemicals

Department of Education, 1984

The following chemicals may only be used where schools possess adequate safety equipment and storage facilities to permit their safe use. These chemicals, where used, should be stocked in minimum quantities only.

Acetaldehyde

Acetylene

Ammonium Perchlorate

Benzene

Bromine (liquid) (Use bromine water where possible)

Calcium Carbide

Carbon Tetrachloride

Cyclopropane

Diethyl Ether

Dimethylamine

Ethyl Acetate

Lithium (Metal)

Lithium Hydride

Mercury

Methyl Ethyl Ether

Nitric Acid

P.T.C. (Phenylthiocarbamide or 1-Phenyl-2-Thiourea)

Petroleum Ether (Ligroin)

Potassium (Metal)

Sodium (Metal)

Toluene

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chemical Storage

Traditionally, chemicals have been stored in our schools using an alphabetical sequence. In some cases flammable and acids are stored in appropriate cabinets but little else occurs. This makes it possible for highly reactive substances such as oxidizing agents and reducing agents to be placed side by side on a shelf, resulting in spontaneous reactions.

Ideal chemical storage would be to completely isolate each major class of material and even isolate some materials within each class. Practically however, this sort of isolation is not economically feasible, especially considering the quantities of material stored in some of our high schools. The method of storage most frequently recommended in this manual prevents the storage of flammable solvents near reactive chemicals and the storage of corrosive liquids (e.g. H2SO4) in the same area as toxicants. The former could cause a fire and the latter could lead to the release of poisonous fumes into the atmosphere.

A good chemical storage facility has four characteristics:

Locked doors isolate the chemical storage room from preparation areas and classrooms;

The design of the room permits safe storage of all chemicals used in the science program;

A colour coded labeling system makes it easy to access the chemicals and replace them in their proper storage system;

Good ventilation system.

Labeling is discussed in the section on WHMIS and in the Flinn Chemical Catalogue and Reference Manual which is available from Flinn Scientific, P.O. Box 231, 971 Wilson St., Batavia, Illinios 60510.

A good chemical storage room must be secure. This will prevent theft and unwarranted use of chemical stock. A separate key from those used to enter classrooms or preparation areas is essential. Only authorized personnel should have access to the chemical storage room. The room must be adequately vented (5.0 L/m2 Floor area) with a fan that is permitted to run continuously. Explosion proof lights, switches and fan motor housing should be installed to prevent fires from electrical shorts or sparks in faulty switches. The ceiling and walls should be gyproc, or some similar non-combustible material.

The chemical storage area must house all of the chemicals normally used in the science program in the school. If your school is unable to accommodate your chemical stock in a single area, you should closely examine the amounts of materials you have in stock. As a general rule you should not order more chemical stock for your school than you will use in a 12 month period.

The shelf storage model in this manual recommends storing chemicals in one of the following groupings: flammable solvents, reducing agents, oxidizing agents, acids, alkaline solutions, hydrolysable solids, *phosphorous, pressurized gases, and others. A suggested shelf storage plan is found in the appendices.

*White phosphorous is prohibited in schools in Nova Scotia.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What if no chemical storage room is available?

The principles of proper chemical storage can be maintained without a separate room.Those principles are:

The room must be adequately vented by an exhaust fan to prevent the accumulation of harmful vapors;

A flammables cabinet must house all solvents and other flammable materials;

Acids and alkaline solutions can be stored on corrosive resistant trays as close to the floor as possible;

Poisons must be kept in a separate locked cupboard;

Oxidizers and reducers should be kept on separate shelves as far from each other as possible;

Hydrolysing solids should be kept in a separate area;

General miscellaneous chemicals can be alphabetical if not incompatible.

This is a very difficult system to maintain. Good housekeeping is a constant problem when chemical storage is not housed in one, separate room.

Other storage suggestions:

1. Avoid floor chemical storage.

2. No top shelf chemical storage.

3. No chemicals stored above eye level.

4. Shelf assemblies attached firmly to walls. Avoid island shelf assemblies.

5. Provide anti-roll lips on all shelves.

6. Ideally shelving assemblies should be of wood construction.

7. Avoid metal, adjustable shelf supports and clips. Better to have fixed, wooden supports.

8. Store acids in dedicated acid cabinets. Store nitric acid in that same cabinet only if isolated from other acids.

9. Store flammable in a flammables cabinet.

10. Store severe poisons in a separate, locked cabinet.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disposal

The disposal of waste chemicals, and potentially hazardous materials, is by necessity a common occurrence in school science laboratories. This manual cannot provide specific detailed information for the disposal of such materials.

Chemicals

Disposal of chemicals should be done in accordance with procedures recommended on the Material Safety Data Sheets and the Nova Scotia Department of Environment regulations. Under no circumstances should disposal methods be used that are not approved by the Department of Environment. The Flinn Chemical Catalogue and Reference Manual is an excellent reference for "do it yourself" disposal.

Be cautious when diluting materials and flushing them down the drain, if the school is not on a municipal sewage system. Many chemicals can damage a septic system.

This Board has an annual disposal of hazardous waste. Retain waste chemicals for that disposal.

Glass

Collect broken glass in a properly labeled container. Arrange for appropriate disposal with care- taking staff.

Mercury

Mercury metal must not be disposed of by any means except recycling. Metallic mercury is never buried, burned, poured down a drain or otherwise put into the environment. One mL of mercury can increase the mercury level of millions of cubic meters of air to above the permissible concentration (0.05 mg/m3).

Biological Materials

All dissected biological specimens and organisms are to be carefully sealed in heavy plastic bags and sent to a landfill site.

Cultures of microorganisms are severely restricted under the new guidelines for biohazardous materials in Nova Scotia schools. In cases where they are permitted, sterilizing of all cultured material is mandatory before disposal. For this reason, cultures should not be considered if an autoclave is not available.

To dispose of microorganism cultures, they must first be sterilized by autoclaving, sealed in a heavy gauge plastic bag and then sent to a landfill site. Liquid cultures should be autoclaved and flushed down the drain with large amounts of water.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spills

Hardly a day goes by in an active school laboratory without a spill of some kind. The obvious teacher reaction is to ensure that no student has been injured by the material spilled. Then, if necessary, the laboratory should be evacuated until the situation can be assessed. In every case, refer to MSDS for direction. Following this, the chemical spill can be dealt with as follows:

1. Small Spills - Weak acids and bases can be flushed down sinks with large quantities of water. Small amounts of solvents can be evaporated in a fume hood. Small spills of poisonous, corrosive or reactive materials must be dealt with in a responsible manner as directed by the MSDS.

2. Large Spills - For concentrated acid and base spills. First attend to the needs of anyone who has come in contact with the substance. The person cleaning up should be provided with proper personal protection - face shield, rubber gloves, rubber boots, lab coat as directed by the MSDS. Acid should be neutralized with dry sodium carbonate; a base with dilute hydrochloric or acetic acid and then further diluted with plenty of water. Use an absorbent material like vermiculite or diatomaceous earth to absorb the material and dispose of in accordance to Department of Environment recommendations.

For large spills of poisonous, corrosive or reactive materials, the best advice would be to immediately evacuate the laboratory, notify administration and to seek immediate assistance from the Department of Environment.

3. Mercury Spills - When mercury is spilled, clean-up must be immediate and thorough. It is common to aspirate any visible drops after a spill, but many small droplets may be hidden in small cracks where they are left to evaporate into the atmosphere. These minute quantities can emit toxic vapor over a very long period of time.

Follow these steps:

Open windows and doors to provide maximum ventilation.

Never sweep spill with a broom. Never vacuum; the use of a vacuum cleaner to pick up mercury spills is strictly prohibited. The mercury lodges in the cleaner bag and each time the cleaner is turned on, more toxic mercury vapors are released.

Wear gloves and, if you are to be walking in the area of the spill, cover your shoes with plastic bags.

Push the pools of mercury together.

Pick up the pools with a closed device like a medicine dropper or a dropping pipet with closed rubber bulb on one end. Transfer the droplets to a seamless polyethylene or polypropylene bottle. Cover securely.

Tiny invisible droplets may remain and current advice about cleaning them up remains unsure, except that good ventilation must be continued.

Consider eliminating mercury from school laboratory use.

 

 

 

 

Biohazardous Materials

The 1990 publication from the Department of Education, the "Biohazardous Materials Safety Manual" (all schools should have a copy of this manual) has come forward with very stringent guidelines for the use of biohazardous materials. The following is quoted from that manual:

"In laboratory exercises....., it is impossible to guarantee an absolutely sterile environment for all students and teachers at all times. It is, then, wise to prohibit the use of potentially dangerous biological materials during laboratory work and demonstrations done in the classrooms. This is particularly important because some infectious organisms have been found to survive long periods of drying.

Concerns have been raised by the Canadian medical community regarding the handling of mammalian tissue, partly in response to the emergence of pathogens such as the virus which causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). AIDS and other diseases such as Hepatitis which are transmitted through direct cellular contact by the intrusion of foreign fluids have been diagnosed in large numbers throughout the world. Guidelines and procedures are set out in this guide to help ensure the health and safety of students and staff who are studying the biological sciences.

The education value of investigations such as blood sampling or cheek cell scrapings can not justify the increased health risk of these and other related procedures to students and staff. The Nova Scotia Department of Education firmly believes that the health and well- being of all members of the education community must be a prime consideration in selecting learning activities."

Listed below is a summary of the major guidelines. For further clarification, or information refer to the Nova Scotia Department of Education "Biohazardous Materials Safety Manual", a copy of which should be available in all schools.

Guidelines

1. Students and teachers are to be made aware of procedures for decontamination and biohazardous waste disposal.

2. Students will be taught that handling body substances of unknown status could endanger their health.

3. The importance of scrubbing hands at the end of every laboratory session should be stressed. School boards are to ensure that adequate facilities are available for students and staff to wash their hands.

4. Staff and students will follow the Youth Science Foundation guidelines and regulations pertaining to projects involving animals. (See Appendix 5)

5. The use of mammalian blood in school science classes is prohibited.

6. The use of urine and fecal material in classroom laboratories is prohibited.

7. Laboratory procedures involving cheek cell scrapings or similar human cell or tissue sampling are prohibited in all school science classes.

8. The use of mammalian tissue, either fresh or frozen, is prohibited in all school science classes.

9. The use of human saliva in school science classes is limited to the careful use of sterile technique with swabs and Petri dishes.

10. Schools will safely dispose of their present stocks of formaldehyde.

Mechanical and Electrical Equipment

Mechanical and Electrical Hazards will seldom exist in a well maintained laboratory. All equipment must be CSA approved and in good working order. With all protective devices and guards in place, there is little opportunity for accidents to occur.

Mechanical Hazards

Use of tools (including glass cutting) - Carelessly used tools, and tools in poor condition are the source of many accidents resulting in cut fingers and hands, eye injuries, bruises and scrapes.

Heavy equipment and materials stored overhead - An accident can cause "mechanical" injuries to the back, arms, legs and head if a heavy overhead item slides and falls or if the weight of the object is greater than the body can bear comfortably.

All rotating equipment and machines - When guards, lids and covers are not in place over exposed shafts, belts and pulleys, loose clothing, fingers and long hair can get caught.

Electrical Hazards

Fire, electric shock, and damage may result from:

Frayed or broken electrical cords;

Improperly used equipment;

Equipment that is not CSA approved;

Electrical equipment not properly grounded;

Inadequate installation of, or improper alterations to electrical power systems;

Improper use of high voltage equipment.

Mechanical and Electrical Hazards Protection

Accident prevention will depend on the proper maintenance of all mechanical and electrical equipment and the careful instruction of students in the safe use of the equipment. The onus is on the teacher to be aware of potential dangers and to convey this information to the students.

Teachers must:

Maintain all equipment and tools in good working order;

Instruct students in the safe use of all equipment and tools;

Be sure that all rotating equipment, such as centrifuges, vacuum pumps, rock saws, drills, grinders, and motors are operated with all covers, lids and guards in place;

Require that eye protection be worn during any grinding or pounding operations;

Require that students using rotating equipment tie up loose clothing and long hair;

Clearly tag all faulty equipment so it will not be used before it is repaired;

Use only CSA or ULA approved electrical equipment;

Ensure that modifications to electrical system are made by qualified personnel only;

Use electrical equipment at its rated capacity only;

Be sure all equipment is shut off when not in use;

Ensure regular safety inspections;

Store all heavy items as close to the floor as possible.

 

 

Fire Safety in the Laboratory

The risk of fires occurring in the laboratory is great due to the frequent use of flammable liquids, solids and gases. Fires can be started in schools in the following ways:

Ignition of solvent vapors;

Ignition of reactive chemicals;

Uncontrolled chemical reactions;

Inadequate storage and disposal techniques;

Heating due to electrical faults;

Loose clothing and hair ignited by the Bunsen burner;

Misuse of gas cylinders;

Inadequate maintenance;

Static electric build-up;

Inadequate laboratory design;

Inadequate temperature control, especially in areas where solvents are stored.

There are three avenues to fire safety:

Prevention;

Evacuation;

Control.

Preventing a fire is most important, and involves keeping very close control over, or eliminating flammable or potentially explosive materials in the laboratories. Proper handling during storage, spills, disposal and educating students about proper use is of utmost importance.

If a fire does occur, students are to be evacuating immediately. Fire drills must be practiced, and the planned escape route and an alternate route must be known by all students. The laboratory is to have two exits that are clearly marked with exit signs. The evacuation must be orderly so that directions can be heard in the event that the escape route changes.

After the area has been safely evacuated, the fire should be controlled. Fuel, an oxidizer (usually air) and an energy source are the three interrelated components of fire, and the fire can be controlled if any of these is removed.

Removing the fuel after ignition is difficult except in the case of turning off the master gas valve when gas is the fuel source. The oxidizer can be removed by the use of fire blankets, foam, carbon dioxide or sand. The energy source can be removed by cooling the material below its ignition point with a substance such as water.

Among the newest type of fire extinguishers available are the Halon extinguisher. Due to their impact on the environment and the health of the user, their use is not recommended.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fires and Fire Extinguisher

There are specific fire extinguishers to use for different classifications of fires, shown in the chart below.

Fire Classification Fire Extinguisher

Class A - fires involving ordinary combustible - Water. Dry Chemical extinguisher

materials such as wood, cloth, paper. can also be used.

Class B - fires involving flammable liquids - Dry chemical foam, CO2

such as solvents, greases, gasoline, and oil.

Class C - fires involving electrical equipment. - Non-conducting agents such as

dry chemical or carbon dioxide.

Class D - fires involving combustible metals - Special dry powder medium or dry

such as magnesium, sodium, lithium sand.

powdered zinc.

The fire extinguishers must be maintained in operable condition and completely checked at least once a year. Any fire extinguisher that has been used must be recharged before it is reused. The class and use of the extinguishers must be clearly marked, and the extinguisher located in a conspicuous place which is marked by signs. A good place for location is near an exit door. They should be mounted at an accessible height, and located conveniently near area of use. Check the fire extinguishers monthly.

Each school laboratory should have the following:

A fire blanket made of fire proofed wool/rayon material. This is not to be used where spillage and fire spreading is possible;

An adequate number of suitable fire extinguishers;

Teachers trained in the correct use of the appropriate equipment.

If a small fire does occur, evacuate all students. If only a small amount of material remains in a beaker or a container that would control the spread of fire, allow it to burn out. If a greater amount of material is burning, wear a face shield and heat resistant gloves, avoid breathing fumes, and place a fire resistant cover over the mouth of the beaker. If the fire is not contained at this point, evacuate and call the fire department.

Never:

Throw water on a chemical fire;

Use a fire extinguisher on standing beakers or flasks;

Turn on water after a flaming container is placed in the sink.

To avoid fires, do not stock more solvent than is required for one school year. Rehearse all experiments that the students will perform, and use a minimum amount of materials. Store solvents in approved (UL, CSA) fire resistant cabinets and always store oxidizers and reducers separately.

 

 

First Aid Kits

A first aid kit for a science laboratory should contain the materials recommended for a St. JohnAmbulance Kit #3.

Equipment:

- 1 safety oriented standard first aid manual

- 1 first aid record book

- 12 safety pins

- 1 blunt nose splinter tweezers

- 1 pair of 10 cm scissors.

Dressings:

- 6 f10 cm by 10 cm sterile bandage compresses

- 32 7.5 cm by 7.5 cm sterile pads, and

- 32 2.5 cm wide sterile adhesive dressings.

Bandages:

- 6 one m triangular bandages

- 2 rolls of adhesive tape, 2.5 cm by 2.25 m

-4.5 m tubular finger bandages with applicator

- 10 finger tip dressings, and

- 10 knuckle pad dressings.

Antiseptics:

- 1 100 ml bottle of peroxide or, in below freezing temperatures, 1 100 ml bottle of alcohol based antiseptic cleansing agent for wounds (e.g. isopropyl alcohol 70%).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Field Trips

The primary purpose of a field trip for a science class is to investigate applications of science or to explore some aspect of the natural environment. Field experiences may be classified into two groups: routine and special. Routine trips are usually of 1 day or less in duration and usually involve a facility such as a museum, zoo, factory, or research center such as a university. Special field trips are usually to ourdoors sights. Here the element of risk is greater, and consequently the need for thorough planning is essential. Permission from the Sub-System Supervisor is necessary for any field trip requiring bus transportation. Permission forms for parents' signatures and forms !&B for routine and special trips are in the appendices section.

The Routine Field Trip

The major problem to be dealt with here is probably transportation. If all students travel together in a bus you should have no problem. However, if teachers, parents, or students drive other students in private cars, you must find out what liability coverage your district provides for the drivers, and what minimum coverage the drivers must have in order to comply with district policies.

Does the site itself pose any special hazards to students? Find our by questioning the contact person at the site before you arrive, and let your students know about the hazards before you leave. Then, remind them again upon arrival at the site.

Discuss the trip with your principal, then obtain written permission from parents before taking students on any field trip.

Adequate supervision is important. Find out if the contact person at the site agrees with you on the number of additional adults who should accompany your students when at the site. The number will vary depending upon the age group and number of your students, and the site itself. In addition to being a safety concern this is also a wise public relations move. It could help you get invited back.

The Special Field Trip

The factor which makes it special is that it usually involves a more remote wilderness destination than a Routine Trip. As with Routine Field Trips, discuss the trip with your principal, outline the trip to your students, send home a disclosure letter, and obtain written parental permission. Important medical information must be collected. You may find it necessary to ensure proper liability insurance coverage is provided for all drivers.

To determine the suitability of a trip, examine the following:

_ Is the activity suitable to the age and condition (mental and physical) of the students?

_ Have the students been progressively trained and coached to do the activity and avoid the foreseeable dangers?

_ Is the equipment being used adequate and suitably arranged?

_ Is the activity, particularly if it is inherently dangerous, being properly supervised?

Teachers and administrators must assess these four criteria when determining the types outdoor activities to carry out with their students. An important factor is the level of qualification possessed by the leader and other adults on the trip. Adults leading trips into wilderness areas must have current first aid certification.

 

 

The leader of the field trip must have visited the area before taking students into it, and have students "prepare for the worst" in terms of environmental conditions. Students should be familiarized with the proper clothing (footwear, jacket, head gear, etc.) And training in how to carry rucksacks if they are to be used. All students should be familiar with emergency procedures in the event that they become separated from the group. A buddy system should be instituted for the protection of the students. Many inconveniences can be avoided with proper planning.

Suitable equipment should be taken to deal with: weather change, purifying drinking water, insect bites, allergies from plants such as poison ivy, poison oak, burns from campfires, and becoming overtired.

In addition to a standard first aid kit that must be taken, the following items should also be packed: sodium bicarbonate for insect bites, an inflatable splint to be used for sprains or breaks, antihistamine (e.g. Benadryl) for serious insect bites, quarters for phone calls, a flashlight, water, germicidal tablets, a compass, a map, waterproof matches, a signal device such as a whistle and reflector, emergency food (e.g. chocolate, nuts, etc.) And insect repellent.

 

 

Personal protective Equipment for Students

_ The need to use simple personal protective equipment has now become widely recognized. If personal injuries to students result from the failure to have or use this equipment, negligence may be claimed.

_ The use of lab coats or aprons is recommended for protection of persons and clothing when working with chemicals and also whenever appropriate in other science activities, e.g. biology.

_ Eye protection must be used in all situations where there is a risk of eye injury.

_ gloves must be work in lab work involving hazardous chemicals or in any other situation when required by the teacher.

_ Safety training is an integral part of learning laboratory techniques. Even though infrequently put to the test, safety training is invaluable for later life.

 

Student Protective Equipment

1. One pair protective goggles or plastic face shields.

Eye damage is one of the most frequent injuries in chemical laboratories. The eyeshields should have fitted side shields. If glasses are normally worn, they usually provide an adequate margin of protection for occasional elementary work. Contact lenses should never be worn in the laboratory.

2. One lab coat or apron.

Approved laboratory material only.

3. One pair of gloves.

Gloves should always be worn when handling hazardous chemicals, and in biological experiments to prevent contact with dyes, formaldehyde, or possible infectious materials.

4. Suitable eye protection against UV radiation must be worn when UV sources are in use.

Sources include discharge tubes, mercury or ion arcs, and lamps for fluorescent "black light" experiments.

 

Safety Equipment for Science Classrooms

The teacher should be familiar with the location and the use of safety equipment. It is imperative that the equipment be checked at least twice a year and should be located for easy access.

Equipment/Comments

Fire Extinguisher ABC Type dry chemical. Do not carry out demonstrations with this extinguisher. Use a spare for this purpose.

Fire Blanket with wall stand Replace any existing asbestos blankets with fire-proofed wool/rayon type.

Eye Wash Station Plumbed eye wash should be available for any experiment that could cause eye damage

First Aid Kit One #3 kit as itemized in Appendices

Emergency Shower Should be readily accessible from any area where experiments are done using chemicals.

Safety Goggles Teachers and students must wear goggles whenever there is the likelihood of eye injury.

Lab Coats or Aprons Should be worn whenever experiments are done using chemicals.

Locked Storage for Dangerous Chemicals

Acid Storage Cabinet

Flammables Storage Cabinet

Master Propane Gas Control

Fume Hoods

Fume hood systems must have a minimum air flow (velocity) of 0.5 metres/second.

_ Fume hoods should be fitted with a sink.

_ Fume hoods must be provided with adequate lighting (500-750 lux ambient lighting).

_ All controls for the operation of the fume hood must be located outside the fume hood.

_ Fume hoods must not be connected to a common duct.

_ Fume hood ventilation systems must not re-circulate discharged air into the laboratory or other work areas.

_ Fume hoods must be checked regularly to assure that they are working properly.

 

 

 

 

Eye Hazards

 

 

The eye is probably the most vulnerable part of the body surface from an injury standpoint. It is also a most important link between the individual and the outside world. Every effort should be made to protect the eye.

 

The eye is easily damaged and because it has few blood vessels injuries heal more slowly and may not fully recover.

 

Foreign bodies present the most common danger to the eye. Particles can lodge on the surface of the eye where they are generally irritating, or sharp objects can penetrate deeply into the eye where they may cause no pain. Certain types of particles can be extremely damaging to the eye. For example, pure copper and iron particles which might penetrate the eye could result in the loss of sight because of their toxic effects on the tissue.

 

In the laboratory, flying glass, possibly from an exploding test tube or flask, can also cause severe injury.

 

The eye reacts differently to different chemical agents. If acid reaches the eye, the eye precipitates a protein barrier that reduces penetration of the acid into the eye tissue. On the other hand, caustic materials in the eye is much more hazardous because the eye has no defense as with acid, and the caustic material readily penetrates into the eye tissue.

 

Another eye hazard found in the school science labs is radiation. Ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation can all damage eye tissue if the intensity level is sufficiently high. The increasing use of lasers requires special eye protection in addition to special facilities and proper techniques.

 

Contact lenses should not be worn in a chemical laboratory. If contact lenses are worn, the teacher must be notified before classes begin and eye goggles must be work during work with chemical substances.

 

Approved eye protection must be worn at all times by everyone in a laboratory situation involving chemicals, explosive materials, compressed gases, hot liquids or solids, injurious radiation or other identifiable hazards.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendices

Table of Contents

1. Safety for science students 29

 

2. Student contract 30

 

3. Safety for science students (teachers' form) 31

 

4. Sample contact lens letter 32

 

5. Regulations for animal experimentation 33

 

6. Sample parent permission form 35

 

7. Outdoor education permission form "A" 36

 

8. Outdoor education permission form "B" 37

 

9. Shelf Storage 41

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Safety for Science Students

1. Maintain quiet, orderly behaviour during laboratory periods. Never rush. Always be prepared to stop quickly.

2. Always be alert. Take care not to bump another student. Remain in your lab station while performing an experiment; an unattended experiment could result in an accident.

3. Study the purpose of the experiment before performing it. If you are uncertain about the correct procedure to be follow, ask the teacher.

4. Advise your teacher of any medical condition (contact lenses, allergies, respiratory problems, etc.) That might be aggrevated by a particular experiment.

5. Never attempt unauthorized experiments. No laboratory work may be carried on without the teacher's permission. Do not begin an experiment until directed to do so by the teacher.

6. Stand up during an experiment unless directed otherwise by the teacher.

7. Never wear expensive clothing if laboratory work is to be done. An old shirt with the sleeves rolled up above your wrists will give your clothes some protection if an apron or a lab coat is not available.

8. Avoid loose, bulky clothing, such as winter jackets, coats, etc. and dangling jewelry. Shorts, sandals and bare feet are prohibited. Keep long hair tied back especially when an open flame is nearby.

9. Never bring food or drink into the laboratory and do not drink from lab glassware.

10. The storage room is out of bounds to all students except when permission has been granted to individuals by the teacher.

11. The Explosives Act of Canada makes the manufacturer of explosives unlawful except under proper license. Report any blast caps lying around to the police and do not touch them.

Personal Protection

12. Wear safety glasses or face shields when instructed to do so by your teacher.

13. Know the location and correct operation of all safety equipment.

14. The most common type of student injury is a burn caused by touching objects which have just been heated. Determine whether an object is hot by bringing the back of your hand up close.

Lab Practices

15. Keep all work areas clean and tidy. Clean and wipe dry all desks, tables, or laboratory work areas at the end of each laboratory activity.

16. Never carry hot equipment of dangerous chemicals through a crowd of students.

17. Always waft odors towards your nose with your hand. Never breathe them directly.

18. Wash your hands after handling any chemicals. Check with your teacher to see if gloves should be worn.

19. Learn to light a Bunsen burner correctly. Keep your head back from the burner during the process.

20. Never leave an almost colourless Bunsen burner flame unattended. If the burner is to be kept lit, shut off the air vent and decrease the gas supply to produce a flame resembling that of a candle.

21. Use a water bath when heating corrosive liquids in a test tube.

22. Use the proper type of tongs when handling hot crucibles or beakers. Crucibles must be held at the very end of crucible tongs. Place hot crucibles on a ceramic square or on the base of a rink stand. Do not allow hot objects to contact laboratory table top.

23. When evaporating a solution to dryness in an evaporating dish, place a watch glass over the dish as protection from spattering.

24. When removing an electric plug from its socket, pull the plug and not the cord. Report frayed cords to the teacher. Bare electrical wires can be extremely dangerous.

Chemicals

25. Never taste chemicals. Use caution when handling all chemicals.

26. Mercury is highly toxic. Never handle it with your bare hands. Report any spilled or exposed mercury. It will ruin gold and jewelry on contact.

27. Learn and use the correct method for pouring chemicals from reagent bottles. Hold the glass stopper above the hand and between the index and the middle finger so the same hand can grasp the bottle.

28. When pouring chemicals from a beaker, use a stirring rod to direct the flow.

29. Be especially careful with organic solvents, many of which are highly flammable and some of which are toxic.

Glassware

30. Report sharp edges on prisms, mirrors, glass plates, metal objects, etc. to the teacher so they can be removed or repaired. Do not work with glass tubing that has jagged edges or edges which have not been fire polished.

31. Check glass tubing to ensure that the flow of gas is not obstructed.

32. Broken glassware should be placed in a container provided for that purpose. Be especially careful not to leave broken glass on benches or in sinks. A separate container should be used for insoluble residues. Never empty these into the sink.

33. Treat a test tube that you are heating like a loaded gun. Never point it in anyone's direction. Hold it at an angle and heat it from the top down. When it is being heated, a test tube should never be more than half full. Keep the test tube moving in the flame. Generally, a beaker is more suitable for heating liquids.

34. To cut smaller diameter tubing with a file, use a new file to make a deep scratch. Then wrap the tubing in a paper towel before bending the glass away from you with your thumbs. Fire polish all cut ends.

35. To insert the thermometer or glass tubing into rubber stoppers, wet the glass and stopper hole with water or oil beforehand. Never push hard, but use a twisting motion.

36. Erlenmeyer and Florence flasks should be clamped to ring stands in addition to being supported on wire gauze and a ring.

37. Remove glass thermometers or glass tubing as soon as possible after use to prevent the glass from "sticking" to the stopper. If they are stuck, either split the stopper with a sharp knife or bore the tube out of the stopper with a cork borer.

Disposal

38. Dispose of chemicals and specimen as instructed by the teacher.

39. Flush sink drains thoroughly after using reagents.

40. Never return unused solutions to stock containers or reagent bottles.

First Aid

41. Rinse any skin burn immediately with lots of water. If an eye is involved, irrigate it without interruption for a minimum of 15 minutes. Refer to the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the chemical involved for specific directions.

42. Report all injuries to the teacher immediately, regardless how minor.

Spills

43. Beware of what appears to be drops of water on laboratory benches. They may be corrosive liquid.

44. Report all breakages and spilled chemicals to the teacher.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annapolis Valley Regional School Board

Student Contract

 

School Name: ________________________________________

 

 

 

I have received instruction in proper safety practices in the laboratory and have read the rules in this pamphlet. I am aware that my sfaety and the safety of my classmates depends on my behaviour in the laboratory. I understand the breaking any of these rules may result in the deduction of points from my laboratory mark and/or denial of access to laboratory facilities.

 

Signature of Student:______________________________

 

Signature of Teacher: _____________________________

 

Date: ____________________

 

Do you wear contact lenses? Yes___ No___

Do you have a medical condition

that could be affected by exposure

to chemical substance? Yes___ No___

If you answered yes to the above

question then please explain your

condition(s) in the space below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annapolis Valley Regional School Board

Safety for Science Students

Teachers Form

School: ______________________________________________________

Class: ____________________________

Teacher:___________________________

 

 

Student's Name Signature Date Contacts Med. Cond.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Youth Science Foundation

Regulations for Animal Experimentation in Science Fairs

Preface

Regulations pertaining to projects involving animals and the display of those projects reflect

different standards. While students' investigations of biological processes are to be encouraged, they are subject to the same laws, ethics, and regulations as any other research. In the Criminal Code of Canada, the Animals for Research Act of Ontario, and similar legislation in other provinces, all vertebrates are afforded protection. Also, schools and science fairs are explicitly included in the definition of "research facility" in Ontario. The regulations below are written in view of these laws.

The display of a project is further restricted by the YSF in view of the need to maintain a positive

public image towards science fairs. The restriction is due to a lack of essential expertise on the part of the student investigators and their immediate supervisors. There is also a desire to maximize the efficiency of animal use and to impress this on the students, especially regarding scientific merit.

RSF's should adhere to the following regulations and take steps to ensure that schools within their

region are familiar with them and conform to them in school fairs. The regulations must certainly

be adhered to for the CWSF, so it would be in the best interests of all concerned if all guidelines

were followed faithfully from the outset.

Regulations

All research involving animals should be screened by a committee cognisant of current regulations in the student's province/territory. If such a committee is not readily available, or is unsure of certain aspects of an idea, please write or call the YSF. Your request will be pssed on to an appropriate authority for guidance and suggestions. Some assistance may also be obtained directly from the Canadian Council on Animal Care:

Canadian Council on Animal Care

151 Slater Street, Suite 1000

Ottawa, ON K1P 5H3

Ph (613) 238-4031

Lower orders of life (bacteria, fungi, protozoa, insects, plants and invertebrate animals) can be

used in experimentation to reveal valuable biological information.

Vertebrate animals (birds, fish, mammals, reptiles, amphibians) are not to be used in any active

experiments which may be deleterious to the health, comfort or physical integrity of the animals.

This permits observation of wild animals, animals in zoological parks, farm animals and pets. Only animals acquired from biological supply may be used in "experiments".Animals from pet stores (or from one's own breeding program) cannot be used for these purposes.

Observation of wild animals falls within the definition of hunting in some jurisdictions. Students

should obtain advice and permission from conversation authorities to ensure that they are not

interfering with the animals' life, and to ensure that their project is permissible. A permit may be required.

 

 

 

Behavioral experiments with positive rewards are permissible only if the animal is not placed in a stress situation. Training an animal to travel through a maze to receive a food reward is stressful, particularly if the animal is hungry, and is therefore not permissible. However, allowing an animal to make a free choice (of food, for example) is permissible, so long as the animal is not stressed before offering the choice (e.g. by withholding food).

Studies of chick embryos are similarly restricted to observation, without intervention with drugs

or other chemicals, or manipulation of physical condition to test the resiliency of the animal. If

eggs are hatched, the chicks must be reared normally. Otherwise all embryos must be destroyed

by freezing by the 18th day of incubation.

Cells and animals parts (including organs, tissues, plasma or serum) purchased or acquired from

biological supply houses or research facilities may be used for science fair projects. Evidence of

the source of the materials (e.g. bill of sale) must be used at the display.

The acquisition of animal parts should involve either the services of biological supply houses or

research facilities, or involve salvage from sources where the animal has been killed for other

legitimate purposes ina legal and humane manner. Salvage from found carcasses (e.g. road kills)

is discouraged due to serious health risks.

If the acquisition involves salvage from a research project, then the disposition of the science

fair project must be pat of the original research proposal, and such disposition must have

been approved by the Research Committee of the institution involved. Reference to the

original project should be made on the science project display.

If the acquisition involves salvage from the food industry, then the source must be

acknowledged.

If the acquisition involves hunting, fishing, or trapping, then those activities must be done in

accordance with prevailing regulations, and precautions must be taken to ensure the safety of

the student(s). The taking of animals other than for food, without explicit approval, can

constitute cruelty. Permits for research are available from conservation authorities.

Research involving human being must involve the principles of informed consent. No human

tissues or fluids are to be used in the science fair project due to the associated ethics and possible

health hazards.

Biological experimentation is subject to legal restrictions, among others:

Criminal Code of Canada, Section 446 Cruelty to Animals;

Health of Animals Act, Bill C-66;

Animals for Research Act (Ontario);

Regulations for Housing, Care and Treatment of Animals Used for Biological or Medical

Purposes (Alberta); and,

Guidelines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care.

Visiting projects from other countries should be informed of these regulations sufficiently before

the fair so that they do not display projects contradictory to the Canadian regulations and milieu.

 

Annapolis Valley Regional School Board

Parent Permission Form

Sample Form

(Date)

 

The Principal

(School)

(Address)

(Postal Code)

 

Dear Sir or Madam:

Re:

(Name of Student)

I, the undersigned parent or guardian of the above named student, acknowledge receipt of your letter of containing details of the proposed field trip to (Date) (Place) on .

(Date)

I am agreeable to my son/daughter participating in this field trip and look forward to receiving

confirmation of costs in due course.

I understand this activity will be supervised by .

(Sponsor Teacher)

Yours truly,

 

 

(Signature(s) of Parent(s) or Guardian(s)

 

 

 

 

 

Note: A form similar to this should be sent home with a detailed letter explaining the coditions of your field trip. The above form will be signed by the parent or guardian and returned to you before your students can participate on the field trip.

 

 

 

To be completed by teacher who is planning to take their students on a field trip off the school premises.

Annapolis Valley Regional School Board

Outdoor Education Pre-Trip Authorization

Permission Form

School: Principal:

Date(s) of Proposed Activity:

Destination:

Grade(s) Involved: No. of Students:

Ratio of students to supervisors:

1. (a) Objective of Activity

(b) Classroom Instruction Prior to Activity (Explain) Yes No

(c) Classroom Follow-Up (Explain) Yes No

2. Personnel: Please list teacher in charge and names of volunteer parents, etc...

Person in charge:

Parent Teacher Other

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

3. How will the activity be financed?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Transportation

School Bus

Other

None Required

 

5. Additional Information or Comments: (please include itinerary and activities - attached if

required)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Are water/wilderness or high risk activities involved? Yes No

Bus Trip Request Attached

 

Signature of Person in Charge:

Date:

Approved

 

Principal: Date:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This form is required for in-province and out-of province overnight trips. Out-of-province, overnight trips also require a pre-trip authorization form.

Annapolis Valley Regional School Board

Curricular/Extra Curricular Education Permission Form

School: Principal:

Date of Proposed Activity:

Destination:

 

 

1. Program/Trip Objectives:

Detailed Account of Activities and Schedule (please list or attach itinerary).

What Pre- and Post-Activities are Planned for this Trip?

2. Personnel Involved:

Boys Girls Total

Number of students

Average age

Grade levels involved

How will they be selected?

Adults Involved:

Name and Position (teacher, volunteer, parents, etc.)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Person in charge:

Will these people be briefed on their responsibilities? yes no

Ratio: Adults/Students

2. Site/Accomodations

Where will the students be staying?

Have arrangements been confirmed in writing? yes no

Do they have appropriate insurance? yes no

What is the responsibility of the owners?

Will emergency measures be known to students re: fire drill, what to do in an emergency,

etc.?

yes no

Is communication and emergency transportation available at all times? yes no

By whom?

Safety and Welfare

Have you provided adequate monitoring of all activities? yes no

Explain:

 

 

 

 

What previous experience or planning have the students had to prepare them for this trip?

Explain:

What previous experience has the school personnel/volunteers had in organizing and executing

such a venture?

Do you have first aid supplies available? yes no

Who is in charge of first aid?

What is their qualification?

Have all students completed their health form? yes no

Are there any water/wilderness or high risk activities involved? yes no

(If yes, complete form "C")

3. Parent Communication

Do you plan to hold a parent meeting to discuss the trip in detail? yes no

Date of meeting:

Will all students complete permission forms for special activities? yes no

Is there an emergency telephone number where students/parents

can be reached? yes no

Will all students have a list of clothes, money, supplies, etc. required? yes no

4. Transportation

How will students be transported? Please check one and specify "other".

School Bus Train Air Other

Have arrangements been secured in writing? yes no

If required, have you completed a School Bus Trip Requisition Form? yes no

Total Cost of Proposed Trip

Total Amount $

How will the trip be financed?

Date submitted for approval:

Principal's Signature:

 

Superintendent Date

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annapolis Valley Regional School Board

Science Laboratory Safety Checklist

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School _____________________________________________________

Teacher _________________________________ Room Number________

() Satisfactory (x) Unsatisfactory (N.A.) Not Applicable

(N.R.) Needs Replacement (R) Repair

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Safety Equipment and Facilities